Monday, October 12, 2015

Build and they will come, or The Black Hole Theory of Highway Investment

These incredible scenes reminded me of a quote by Plane (1995) about the Black Hole Theory of Highway Investment:
"Initial investments in improved highway facilities result in greater ease of travel and hence altered travel patterns, including an increase in average trip length and in the number of trips being made. Over time, as shown in Figure 18.1, this increased demand stimulated by the initial investment in increased transport supply fuels the need for even more facilities, and the feedback process repeat itself. This familiar phenomenon has been called the black-hole theory because some people claim that investing in highways is like throwing money into a black hole" (Plane, 1995 p.439)

photo credit: Rafael Pereira

  • Plane, D. A. (1995). Urban transportation: policy alternatives. In Hanson & Giuliano (Eds.) The geography of urban transportation. (2nd ed.) New York ; London: Guilford Press.

1 comment:

Suraj sewa said...

Nice article budd I was always looking for a blog like yours because I am also a publisher and would like to share my knowledge to the world too. I have published an article related to black holes here. Let me know how it is

What's inside a black hole

What's inside a black hole Black holes are mysterious and bizarre objects in the universe that really have no explanation. In fact We hardly know anything about what lies inside of a black? Hole we know and understand what we see on the outside of a black hole But we have no way of going inside one to take a look at what is really happening Even if we sent a probe inside a black hole It would not survive the journey And there would be no way that the probe could transmit a signal outside once it had been sucked inside This is because a black Hole is the product of mass being squeezed together, so densely and so tightly that it creates a gravitational pole That is so strong that not even light can escape its grasp Supermassive black holes with masses millions to billions of times that of the Sun are thought to lurk at the hearts of all galaxies in the universe You may notice that when you see a photo of a spiral galaxy Such as the Milky Way in the center of the galaxy is a giant mass of light? Which many people would think looks like a massive Sun, but this is not light coming from the black hole itself Remember that life cannot escape the heavy gravitational pull Instead the light we see comes from magnetic fields near a spinning black hole that propel electrons outward in a jet Along the rotation axis the electrons produce bright radio waves Quasars are believed to produce their energy from massive black holes in the center of the galaxies in which the quasars are located But quasars are so bright they drown out the light from all the other stars in the same galaxy. You're probably asking: Well What's a quasar? A quasar is the short name for a quasi stellar object and is a very highly energetic object. Surrounding an actively feeding supermassive black hole in more basic terms the supermassive black hole in the middle of a galaxy feeds intermittently as it feeds gas swirls around it at incredible speeds and Forms an insanely bright hot orbiting disc and if the black hole is swallowing a large amount of material this feeding is accomplished by gigantic Jets of gas these are called quasar They are essentially fueled by the black holes They orbit some supermassive black hole giants release an extraordinarily Large amount of light when they rip apart stars in devour matter and are likely the driving force behind these quasars When material gets too close to a black hole it forms that bright hot accretion disk around the black hole That accretion disk heats up to millions of degrees Blasting out an enormous amount of radiation The magnetic environment around the black hole forms twin Jets of material which flow out into space for millions of light years This becomes what is called an active galactic nucleus Or a GN the diet of known black holes consists mostly of gas and dust which fill the otherwise empty space throughout the universe black holes can also consume material torn from nearby stars in fact the most massive black holes can swallow stars whole Black holes can also grow by colliding and merging with other black holes This growth process is what can and usually does reveal the presence of a black hole? Read More Yt