Brazil is internationally famous for a few things, one of them is having one of the highest levels of income inequality. The good news is that inequality is falling in the country and in Latin America more generally. Here is a nice article on income inequality in Brazil and the relatively small but still important role of conditional cash transfer programms (ht Renato Saboya).
Here are some more info on the historical evolution of income inequality in Brazil: An interactive chart (by Max Roser), and this interesting chart showing the relation between GDP and Gini index during each presidential term since the 1980s, published Alberto Cairo in his recent book.
image credit: Alberto Cairo